ARTICLE VOLUME-II

Abstract The Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies shortened to acronym, JONARES, is the first scientific ever-to-be published refereed journal by the academia in South Sudan. This is the second issue of volume one of the journal in which you will find ten well-researched information on five disciplines: wildlife, fisheries, agroforestry, animal production and crop science. The information contained in these papers have been generated largely by research done by the academic staff of the College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies in their quest for higher academic qualifications (Masters and doctorate) degrees........................ Download Full Version


Abstract: (Pastoral Responses to Climate and Forage Variability in Kapoeta Region of South Sudan) Onono et al., JONARES Vol. 2: 73 -83: Francis A. Onono1*, Sadhat S. Walusimbi2, Emmanuel Zziwa3)

Climate and forage variability are real and hurting livestock production in semi-arid areas of South Sudan. In Kapoeta region, climate and forage variability compelled pastoralists to use coping and adaptation strategies to alleviate its impact on livestock production. The study assessed pastoral knowledge, perceptions, coping and adaptation strategies, and factors that influence their decisions to respond to climate and forage variability in semi-arid area of Kapoeta. A cross-sectional survey of pastoral households was conducted between March and April 2016 using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to present pastoral knowledge, perceptions and responses to climate and forage variability. Logistic regression was run to establish factors influencing their decisions to cope and adapt to climate and forage variability. The results showed that the majority of the pastoralists (63 percent) observed changes in climate and 66 percent of the respondents mentioned that they migrate in search of forage and water for their livestock. Their movement was instigated by distance to water points in dry season and the need to conserve pasture in-situ...........
Keywords: Climate, Forage, Pastoralists, Coping Strategies.......©2022 JONARES all rights reserved............. Download Full Version


Abstract:(Post-Harvest Fish Losses: Physical and Quality Loss Assessment amongst Fish Traders in Main Markets of Juba, South Sudan) Balli and Benansio., JONARES Vol. 2:84 -92: Johnson J. Balli  * and John S. Benansio

This study was conducted in the main fish markets in Juba to examine post-harvest fish losses (PHFL) amongst the fish traders. The methodology used in the study was direct semi-structured interviews for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. Findings of this study revealed that the factors which led to PHFL were the approximate fish quantities transported, methods used for fish transported, for preservation and for storage. For fresh fish traders, the average quantity (%) lost per load was positively correlated with methods of controlling losses (r=0.230) at 0.05 significance level but negatively correlated with methods used for preservation (r=-0.624) at 0.01 significance level. For dried fish, the approximate quantities transported indicated a positive correlation with the average quantity (%) lost per load (r=0.45) at 0.01 significance level. Generally for fresh fish, the percentage of traders who lost between 1-10% and 21-30% of the fish load per trip were recorded as 52% and 20% respectively. For the dry fish traders, were 55% and 11% respectively........
Keywords: Post-harvest loss, Fish traders, Markets, Variables........©2022 JONARES all rights reserved........ Download Full Version


Abstract:(Factors Influencing Households Participation in Agroforestry Practices and on Farm Tree growing and Management in Rajaf County, South Sudan. Mayele and Bongo. JONARES Vol. 2: 93 -107: Joseph M. Mayele* and Augustine L. Bongo)

The purpose of the study was to assess the socio-economic and demographic factors that influence farmers’ decisions to participate in tree planting and their management. The study covered four broad sites of Gumbo, Kolye East, Kolye West, and Tokiman of Rajaf County 332 household respondents were randomly surveyed for interviews and their assessed socio-economic data were subjected for descriptive statistics in frequencies, percentages and inferential statistics to determine their level of adoption and significance. The results showed most households were female respondents (54.5%) and over 75.6% of respondents were married with most of them being illiterate (over 79%). Subsistence farming was their main economic activity (80.7%) and source of incomes (80.1%) respectively. These rural farmers (58.13%) owned small parcel of farmlands (2 ha) per family with over 70% of them still using system of inheritance from their forefathers. The average family size was 1-4 members (86.1%).The Chi-square tests and regression analysis indicated household incomes (p=0.00) and labour requirements (p=0.05) had a significantly positive influence on farmers’ decisions to grow trees on farms........
Keywords: Agroforestry, Socio-economic factors, Logistic regression, Trees/Shrubs, Rajaf County................ Download Full Version


Abstract: (Economics of Wildlife Tourism: A Case of Nimule National Park, South Sudan. Saburi et al. JONARES Vol. 2: 108 - 115: Emmanuel J. Saburi1*; Joseph M. Mayele2 and Thomas F. Lado1)

Tourism plays an important role in development and generation of foreign revenues. However, in many countries around the globe its contribution to the development by generation of foreign currency is not known. This study sought to first determine the income by wildlife tourism in Nimule National Park (NNP), second the composition of the tourists visiting the park, third the peak time of the tourists in the park and fourth to determine trends in tourists visiting the park from 2009-2014. Primary data was collected through questionnaires, key informant interviews at the park and 10 respondents from the park personnel. Secondary data was obtained from previous tourists visiting reports, and statistics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics using PAST statistical softwares programmme. The results revealed that the total income raised from wildlife tourism in NNP was 21,548.15 USD for five years (2009-2014). However, the highest income was obtained in 2012 (10,319 USD), followed by 2013 (8,201 USD) and, the least amount was obtained in 2010 (900 USD)..............
Keywords: Wildlife Tourism, Conservation, Economics of Wildlife....©2022 JONARES all rights reserved........ Download Full Version


Abstract:(Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Elephant-snout Fish [Mormyrus caschive (L.)] and Tilapia [reochromis niloticus (L.)] from Terekeka, South Sudan. Mondo et al., JONARES Vol. 2: 116 -122: Borodi C. Mondo1*, Peter Akoll2 and Margaret Masette2)

The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pit and chorkor smoked fish was determined to adopt appropriate technology that maintains the quality and safety of smoked fish to enhance nutrition and food security in South Sudan. A total of 60 fresh Elephant-snout Fish (Mormyrus caschive) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were purchased from Sur-num landing site in Terekeka; 12 fresh samples were iced and the remaining 48 samples were divided into two batches for pit and chorkor smoking. Fish samples were extracted and purified using organic solvents, and dried under nitrogen flow. Fish samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results revealed that, seven types of PAHs consisting of low molecular weight, 2-ringed-Naphthalene, 3-ringed; Anthracene, Fluorene, acenaphthene and Phenanthrene, and medium molecular weight; Benzo [a] anthracene and Chrysene, 4-ringed were recorded from both smoked fish species. Fluorene and Naphthalene dominated the PAHs with pit smoked fish containing significantly higher levels of Fluorene (3.83±0.10 μg/kg) and Naphthalene (5.86±4.16 μg/kg) than chorkor smoked samples.............
Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Levels, Species, Technologies, Pyrolysis.................................. Download Full Version


Abstract: (Weed Population Diversity, Distribution and Relative Abundance in Soybean Experimental Field, University of Juba: Gama and Buga , JONARES Vol. 2: 123- 134. *1Peter B. S. Gama and 2Modi Joseph Buga)

Weed management is essential for any agricultural production system as they compete with cultivated food crops for limited resources such as water, nutrients and light. Weeds can reduce soybean yield by almost 37%. To develop a sound integrated crop and weed management, it is crucial to conduct a study on distribution and abundance of weed plant species in the field, especially where legumes such as soybean, kidney beans, cowpea, and green gram are grown. The survey was carried out at the Experimental Farm aimed to identify common weed species and their respective families that prevail in the soybean field. Soybean, Glycine max, is an herbaceous annual plant in the family Fabaceae grown for its edible seeds. However, presence of noxious weeds hamper its production. Results of the field survey, so far, revealed that out of the 17 species identified, 14 were from various botanical families falling under three (3) classes according to their life span namely annuals, perennials and annuals/perennial............
Keywords: Weeds, Glycine Max L. (Merrill), Plant Diversity, Relative Abundance, Field Density........................ Download Full Version


Abstract:(Home Range and Movement Behaviour of the African savanna Elephant (Loxodonta africana africana L.) in the Nimule National Park Landscape. Tomor et al., JONARES Vol. 2:135 - 145: Bojoi M. Tomor1*, M. Ocaido2 and C. Dranzoa2, 3)

Savanna elephants require large areas to meet their spatio-temporal needs. Yet, current conservation strategies in South Sudan focus on securing numbers and habitats within protected areas. Using a GPS collar, the home ranges and movement behaviour of an adult male elephant were determined in Nimule National Park using the Fixed Kernel method and its speed of movement analyzed using the Spatial Analyst extension in Arch GIS. The bull’s home range was 167.3 km2 with over 74% of the range occurring outside the park. Though 53% of the locations were recorded inside the park, the bull’s core area under protection covered just 17.01 km2. The elephant’s wet and dry season home ranges were not significantly different, spatially explicit and were not influenced by rainfall. It moved at speeds ranging from 0.2 – 2.1 km h-1 with the highest monthly average speed of 0.4 km h-1 attained at the onset of the rainy season in March and April. The bull moved faster during the dry season (0.313 ± 0.213 km hr-1) than the wet season (0.304 ± 0.271 km hr-1)........... .
Keywords: Home Range, Speed, Elephant, Conservation, Nimule National Park, Landscape............................. Download Full Version


Abstract:(Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Nimule National Park, South Sudan) Shazali et al., JONARES Vol. 2: 146 - 151: Abdullah G. Shazali 1, Edward Mawvu2 and Robert Kiytio3

The aim of this study was to assess changes in land use and land cover in and around Nimule National Park to provide scientific information that could aid in formulating management and conservation strategies for the park. Aanalysis of Landsat satellite imagery for the years 1996, 2006 and 2016 were carried out using maximum likelihood supervised classification, as well as a change detection technique, were used to assess the different land use/cover classes in the park and adjacent areas. The results of the land use/cover change analysis revealed there was a decrease in the built-up area (3.7%), farmland (2.8 %), and open woodland (63.7%) and an increase in other land use and land cover classes between the years (1996-2006). These changes could be attributed to displacement of local communities due to the civil strife between this periods, 1983-2005.The results from remote sensing showed that there were changes in some land use and land cover classes. From 2006-2016there was an observed increase in a built-up area (3.1%) and open woodland increased (49.7%); and a decrease in grassland (29.5%), farmland (0.7%), and open forest (21.7%) cover. These changes will have great implications on the wildlife populations............
Keywords: Land Use, Satellite Images, Classification, Nimule National Park...................................................... Download Full Version


Abstract:(Performance of Some Selected Rice Cultivars for Yield and Grain Quality. Denis et al., JONARES Vol. 2: 152 - 162: Bryan E. John Denis1, Lydia N. Wamalwa1, J. M. Kimani2 and Kahiu Ngugi1)

Rice is an important crop in Eastern Africa and it is often ranked after maize, sorghum and wheat. Rice is mostly grown by small scale farmers as commercial and food crop; however rice yield per hectare is low (<3.6 t/ha) because smallholder farmers rely on local rice cultivars with low yield potential, poor grain quality, highly susceptible to bacterial leaf blight and rice blast. Thus, there is need to improve locally adapted rice cultivars for high yield and desirable grain qualities. The objective of this study was to contribute to increased rice productivity through the development of improved, locally adapted rice varieties with high yield potential, earliness and high grain quality. Thirty one genotypes, comprising of parental lines and F1 progenies were generated from crosses between three male indica parents and seven japonica females using North Carolina Design II mating system 14 F2.3. Segregating populations were evaluated during rainy season 2016/2017 at Mwea Research Station of KARLO in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The genotypes were scored for grain yield, grain quality and several other agronomic traits.................
Keywords: Grain Quality, Aroma, Yield, Oryza sativa................© 2022 JONARES all rights reserved................ Download Full Version


Abstract:(Primate Species and their Habitat Utilization in Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. Jubara et al., JONARES Vol. 2: 163 -169: Nadlin J. S. Jubara *1, Shazali A. Gordon1, Vincent Muwanika2, And Nybong Melania3)

Primates are an important part of tropical rain forest ecology. Their population assessments provide the basis for comparative studies and are necessary prerequisites in determining conservation action. This paper discusses primate species and their habitat utilization in Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. The objectives of the study were to assess distribution and density of primates, and determine their habitat utilization; this information is important for conservation action and provides baseline data for future monitoring. Line transect sampling was used to assess the density, and activities timed to come up with the time budget. Twelve transects were randomly placed in four management zones, with three transects of 1km in each zone, and each transect sampled for one hour. Two species were recorded, and the majority were Cercopithecus ascanius larvatus (N=56) followed by Lophocebus ugandae (N=41) based on the sightings over all transects. The density for each species was calculated to be Red tail (Cercopithecus) 2.016 and the Mangabey (Lophocebus) 1.476. The habitat utilization was found to be nine different tree species..................
Keywords: Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Primate’s species, Habitat utilization, Primate density.................. Download Full Version