Abstract In this first issue, eight well-researched fascinating papers by our indigenous scholars have been published on crop science, animal production, agroforestry, fisheries, birds and problems of produced water in oil production sites. We therefore encourage all our readers who are engaged in doing research on natural resources in South Sudan and similar areas to avail their data and information to other researchers and development planners through JONARES....................... Download Full Version

Abstract: (An Overview of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Production in the Equatoria Region of South Sudan)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important socio-economic grain legume. Research on cowpea improvement has not seen progress for decades due to political instability and lack of funding because cowpea is not considered an elite crop. The project implementation began with a baseline survey in Greater Equatoria region. The objectives of the survey were: to know and understand farmers cowpea trait priorities and varietal preferences; to assess farmers access to improved cowpea varieties with particular references to source of seed and availability; and to understand and prioritise farmers’ production and utilisation constraints. Thirty farmers were selected randomly for interview in each of the five counties, making a total of 150 farmers. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from respondents.
Keywords: Cowpea, Preference, Production, Constraints and Prospects................ Download Full Version

Abstract:(Prevalence of Major Skin Diseases among Nilotic Zebu Cattle in Bahr El Ghazal Region, South Sudan)

1860 Nilotic Zibu cattle were subjected to a three-month cross sectional study, involving clinical examination, questionnaire and direct interview, to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of the pastoralists toward skin diseases. The major skin diseases identified in Bahr el Ghazal region were ecto-parasites, Papilomatosis (Wart), Dermatophilosis, mange mites, photosensitization, cutaneous myiasis, lumpy skin disease and wounds, with their mean prevalence rate of 27.8% , 0.7 % , 1.3 %, 0.9 % , 1.2 %, 0.7 %, 0.9 %, 0.9%, respectively. But the overall mean prevalence rate was 4.3%, with ecto-parasites presented the highest prevalence (27.8%). Comparing prevalence per study areas, Tonj state had the highest prevalence rates of 38.7%, 6.6%, 3.5% and 4.8% for ecto-parasitic infestation, Dermatophilosis, lumpy skin disease and cutaneous myiasis, respectively. Calves and heifers were more susceptible to skin diseases than cows and bulls.
Keywords: Nilotic Zebu cattle; Bahr el Ghazal Region; skin diseases; prevalence................ Download Full Version

Abstract:(Seminal Plasma Re-Addition to Ram Semen Ameliorates the Effect of Dilution Rate and Reduces Percentage of Acrosomal                               Damaged Sperm)

Ram spermatozoa are very sensitive to the effect of dilution rate during adjustment for artificial insemination dose for sheep. The objectives of this study was to determine the extent of protection that will be offered by the seminal plasma to ram sperm when added to the cryopreservation diluent, following low and high dilution rates before cooling semen to 5° C and freezing. In experiment 1, pre-cooling dilution with seminal plasma extender (group B) at low dilution rate was found to significantly (p<0.05) preserve the post-thaw percentage of acrosomal damaged sperm (19.6 ±0.52%) and maintained acceptable post-thaw sperm progressive motility (44.5 ± 1.57%) compared to milk base diluted semen in group A (53.0 ±1.11%) progressive motility and 41.0 ±1.90% acrosome damaged sperm). In experiment 2, following high dilution rate of semen, seminal plasma treated sub-groups C2 and D1, D2 were also found to significantly (p<0.05) reduce percentage of acrosomal damaged sperm (20.6± 0.99, 23.3 ±1.15 and 21.5 ±1.12% respectively) and maintained acceptable sperm progressive motility rates (47.5 ±0.01, 47.0 ±1.70 and 48.5± 1.67 % respectively).
Keywords: Ram Semen, Seminal Plasma, Dilution Rate, Acrosome Integrity................ Download Full Version

Abstract:(Characterization of Produced Water effluents from Gummry Oil Field Processing Facility in Upper Nile State, Republic of                                      South Sudan)

Oil sector has played a vital role in the development of South Sudan. However, the by-products from its untreated produced water effluents may apparently be damaging various bio-ecological environments. Huge volumes of produced water are being discharged into the environment that may possibly be causing unknown grave environmental problems. Since the establishment of oil exploration and production in Gummry oil fields, characterization of the accurate nature and concentrations of pollutants found in the produced water emanating from its Field Processing Facility (FPF) to its evaporation ponds has never been area of concern. The present study tried to characterize the produced water effluents of Gummry FPF in the surrounding ponds. The produced water effluent samples were collected from four different ponds (P1, P2, P3 and Evaporation pond-P4). All the samples were characterized and analyzed for temperature, pH, EC, apparent colour, TDS, TSS, nitrates, chlorides, total alkalinity, total hardness, total phosphorus, calcium, COD, iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel according to the standard methods of analysis.
Keywords: Oil Sector; Produced Water; Bio-Ecological; Exploration; Characterization; Evaporation Ponds................ Download Full Version

Abstract:(Effect of Selected Limnological Factors on Phytoplankton in Section of the River Nile)

Effects of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and water transparency on phytoplankton communities were investigated in section of the River Nile at Nimule, South Sudan. The Mean ± SE water pH, DO mgO2/L, water temperature (0C), transparency (cm) and total phytoplankton abundance (cells L-1) were in the order: 6.41± 0.23, 6.41± 0.23, 2±0.05, 27± 0.05, 62 ± 3.60 and 144 ± 24, respectively. Three phytoplankton peaks were encountered; the first peak was 285cells/L at pH 7.08, DO 1.8 mgO2/L, temperature 27.1 0C and transparency 50 cm, the second one was 223cells/L at pH 5.98mg/L, DO 2.21mg/L, temperature 27.1 0C and transparency of 60 cm, and the third peak was 210 cells/L at pH 6.8, DO 1.95 mgO2/L, temperature 27.1 0C and transparency of 60cm, recorded in September and October respectively. Two low peaks of 57cells/L at pH 6.91, DO 2.23 mgO2/L, temperature 26.6 0C and water transparency of 60cm and 66cell/L at pH 7.09, DO1.8mg/L, temperature 27.1 0C and water transparency of 50cm occurred in August and October respectively.
Keywords: Phytoplankton, Climate Change, River Nile, Nimule South Sudan................. Download Full Version

Abstract: (Effect of Smoking Technologies on Nutritional Value and Safety of Mormyrus caschive and Oreochromis niloticus in Terekeka,                          South Sudan)

The effect of smoking kilns on nutritional value and safety of smoked fish was determined using a total of 300 fresh Mormyrus caschive and Oreochromis niloticus. 36 fresh samples were iced and the remaining 264 samples were divided into two batches for pit and chorkor smoking. Samples were subjected to chemical analyses according to the methods of the association of official analytical chemists (2005). Microbial load was investigated using standard methods of bacmteriological analytical manual (2005). Results revealed that chorkor significantly reduced moisture content in smoked M. caschive (10.0±0.83%) and O. niloticus (15.1±0.48%) more than pit by 15.3±0.57 % and 17.3±0.42%, respectively. Thus, effective removal of water from fish is attributed to the concentration of heat associated with enclosed characteristics of chorkor kiln. Although both smoking methods concentrated crude protein, fat and ash contents, chorkor smoked fish had significantly higher nutrient concentrations than pit because of effective removal of water content from fish.
Keywords: Nutrition, Safety, Technologies, Microbial, Water Activity................ Download Full Version

Abstract:(The Effect of Cutting-back Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori for Forage and Fruit Production in the Semi-Arid Regions)

A study was conducted to determine the most suitable cutting management of Grewia tenax for forage and fruit production under irrigation. Mature grewia plants of two years were cut-back to stable heights of 60cm, 30cm and 0cm from the ground level to assess coppicing ability, regrowth biomass production, days to flowering and fruits yields. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. Variables studied included number of regrowths, their heights and diameters, while their dry matter yields separated into leafy and woody biomass parts were simultaneously evaluated every week for a twelve weeks. Findings gave no significance difference (P<0.05) in heights and diameters of the regrowths among the different cutting heights. However, significant difference (P<0.05) were noticed in the numbers of sprouts counted, days to flowering and fruit yields in the various cutting levels.
Keywords: Semi-arid, forage trees, indigenous fruit trees, coppicing ability................. Download Full Version

Abstract:(Agroforestry Practices and Potential of On-Farm Trees and shrubs for Food Security & Climate Change Resilience in                                         Rajaf County-South Sudan)

Incorporating trees and shrubs in food crop systems can help to address food insecurity issues and reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current agroforestry practices and their relevance to enhancing food security and climate change resilience among rural communities in Rajaf County. Household surveys using structured and semi-structured questionnaires, Key informant interviews and Focused Group Discussions were used. Data analyses were done in descriptive statistics that include comparing their frequencies and percentages while others were presented in charts and graphic forms. Results indicated that most households practised agrisilvicultural and agrisilvopastoral agroforestry systems with scattered trees on farms, boundary plantings, homegardens, and woodlots as their onfarm arrangements.
Keywords: Agroforestry practices, Food security, Climate change strategy, Trees and shrubs................. Download Full Version

Abstract:(Influences of Vegetation Structure on Birds Species Numbers and Diversity in Nimule National Park, South Sudan)

A study of the relationships between bird community and vegetation was conducted in Nimule National Park, during January and March 2019. The objective of the study was to determine how bird species numbers and diversity were influenced by habitat variables and vegetation attributes. Point-count sampling method was applied to determine species numbers; simultaneously, the vegetation variables were sampled in three habitats using the quadrat method in a (20m x20m) plots Centered on the bird-count points. Results revealed a strong correlation between bird community and physiognomic variables of the tree layer, in particular, canopy closure and tree basal area were the key factors that influenced bird species numbers and diversity. Shrub layer characteristics and floristics, expressed as tree species richness and tree species diversity, were less correlated to bird species numbers and diversity.
Keywords: Species Richness, Vegetation, Physiognomic Variables................. Download Full Version